Further Reading


The following is a list of external links to introductory information on some of the key domain concepts underlying models of sleep-wake and alertness dynamics.


Peer reviewed scientific publications, mostly describing the models made available by this website and API or their application to laboratory or real-world data. The papers are split into two groups, those published by: 1) researchers at the University of Sydney, where the primary models were developed; and 2) researchers at other institutions, mostly describing other models that are implemented for reference.

Sydney Group

Knock, S.A., Magee, M., Stone, J.E., Ganesan, S., Mulhall, M.D., Lockley, S.W., Howard, M.E., Rajaratnam, S.M.W., Sletten, T.L., Postnova, S., (2021), Prediction Of Shiftworker Alertness, Sleep, And Circadian Phase Using A Model Of Arousal Dynamics Constrained By Shift Schedules And Light Exposure. Sleep [link]

Abeysuriya RG, Lockley SW, Robinson PA, Postnova S. (2018) A unified model of melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and sleep dynamics. [link]

Postnova S, Lockley SW, Robinson PA, (2018), Prediction of Cognitive Performance and Subjective Sleepiness Using a Model of Arousal Dynamics. J Biol Rhythms 33:203–218. doi: 10.1177/0748730418758454 [link]

Postnova S, Lockley SW, Robinson PA, (2016), Sleep Propensity under Forced Desynchrony in a Model of Arousal State Dynamics. J Biol Rhythms 31:498–508. doi: 10.1177/0748730416658806 [link]

Postnova, S., Postnov, D. D., Seneviratne, M., & Robinson, P. A. (2014). Effects of Rotation Interval on Sleepiness and Circadian Dynamics on Forward Rotating 3-Shift Systems. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 29(1), 60–70. [link]

Postnova S, Robinson PA, Postnov DD (2013) Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time. PLOS ONE 8(1): e53379. [link]

Postnova, S., Layden, A., Robinson, P. A., Phillips, A. J. K., & Abeysuriya, R. G. (2012). Exploring Sleepiness and Entrainment on Permanent Shift Schedules in a Physiologically Based Model. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 27(1), 91–102. [link]

B.D. Fulcher, A.J.K. Phillips, P.A. Robinson, (2010) Quantitative physiologically based modeling of subjective fatigue during sleep deprivation, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 264, Issue 2, 2010, ISSN 0022-5193, doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.02.028 [link]

Phillips AJK, Robinson PA, Kedziora DJ, Abeysuriya RG, (2010), Mammalian Sleep Dynamics: How Diverse Features Arise from a Common Physiological Framework [link]

Phillips AJK, Chen PY, Robinson PA (2010) Probing the mechanisms of chronotype using quantitative modeling. J Biol Rhythms 25:217–227.

Phillips AJ, Robinson PA, (2007), A quantitative model of sleep-wake dynamics based on the physiology of the brainstem ascending arousal system. [link]

Other Groups

Phillips AJK, Klerman EB, Butler JP (2017) Modeling the adenosine system as a modulator of cognitive performance and sleep patterns during sleep restriction and recovery. PLoS Comput Biol 13:e1005759. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005759

Skeldon A, Derks G, Dijk DJ (2015) Modelling changes in sleep timing and duration across the lifespan: changes in circadian rhythmicity or sleep homeostasis? Sleep Med Rev 28:92–103. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.05.011

Ingre M, Van Leeuwen W, Klemets T, Ullvetter C, Hough S, Kecklund G, Karlsson D, Åkerstedt T (2014) Validating and extending the three process model of alertness in airline operations. PLoS One 9:e108679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108679

McCauley P, Kalachev L V, Mollicone DJ, Banks S, Dinges DF, Van Dongen HPA (2013) Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance. Sleep 36:1987–97. doi: 10.5665/sleep.3246

Rajdev P, Thorsley D, Rajaraman S, Rupp TL, Wesensten NJ, Balkin TJ, Reifman J (2013) A unified mathematical model to quantify performance impairment for both chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. J Theor Biol 331:66–77. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2013.04.013

Johnson ML, Belenky G, Redmond DP, Thorne DR, Williams JD, Hursh SR, Balkin TJ (2004) Modulating the Homeostatic Process to Predict Performance during Chronic Sleep Restriction. Aviat Sp Environ Med 75:A141-6.